Mizo Tawng – Ziah Zawm Dan leh Ziah Zawm Loh Dan

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Ziah Zawm leh Ziah Zawm Loh

Mizo Tawng - Ziah Zawm Dan leh Ziah Zawm Loh DanHe thu ziak hi a that leh tangkai em avangin post chhawn a ni.
– Mar

Source: The MIZO
(Mizo Literary Journal, USA)
Volume I Number 1
(March, 2013)


A Chhunga Thupuite:
  1. Parts of Speech (Tawngkam Bung Hrang Hrangte)
  2. Affix (Thu Bet)
Mizo Tawng – Ziah Zawm leh Ziah Zawm Loh
(USA-a Awmte leh Malaysia-a Awmte Tan)

– Lalchhanhima

Mizo ṭawng hi lam rik tin awmze nei (Monosyllabic language), uluk taka thluk ngai (Tonal language), lam rik tin a hranga ziah chi ni si lo a ni. A vaiin tarlang thei lo mah ila, tun ṭumah hian Mizo ṭawng ziah zawm tur leh ziah zawm loh tur chungchanga kan buaina tlangpui tarlan kan tum dawn a ni. Kan tarlante hre thiam tur hian ṭawngkam bung hrang hrangte (Parts of speech) leh thu bet (Affix) te hi hriat thiam hmasak a ṭul a ni. Ṭawng hi Grammar hmanga chin fel vek theih a nih loh avangin kan tarlan dan lo pawh hian dik thei leh dik lo thei tam tak a awm ngei ang.

Parts of Speech (Ṭawngkam Bung Hrang Hrangte)

Noun (Thil hming)
Thil reng reng, hmuh theih a ni emaw, hmuh theih loh a ni emaw, khawih theih a ni emaw, khawih theih loh a ni emaw, a hminga kan lam theih tawh phawt chu, chu hming chu Noun (thil hming) a ni.
Entirna: Bawng, mei, mo, thingkung, Zuali.

Pronoun (Hming aiawhtu)
Noun aiawhtu atana kan hman ṭawngkam chu Pronoun (hming aiawhtu) a ni.
Entirna : A, amah, an, anmahni, ka, kan, keimah, keimahni.

Adjective (Hming sawifiahtu)
Noun nihna sawi belhchhahtu tawngkam chu Adjective (hming sawifiahtu) a ni.
Entirna: Duhawm, hlu, nalh, sual, tha.

Verb (Nihtirna)
Tih dan, neih dan, awm dan, nih dan sawina atana kan hman ṭawngkam chu Verb (nihtirna) a ni.
Entirna: Awm, duh, hmangaih, kawih, nei, ti.

Adverb (VAA sawifiahtu)
Verb, Adjective leh Adverb vek te sawi belhchhahtu atana kan hman tawngkam chu Adverb (VAA sawifiahtu) a ni.
Entirna: Hle hle, mai mai, tak tak.

Preposition (Kungkaihtirtu)
A hmaa Noun emaw, Pronoun emaw leh a hnunga Noun emaw, Pronoun emaw inkungkaitirna atana kan hman ṭawngkam chu Preposition (kungkaihtirtu) a ni. Mizo tawngah chuan Noun emaw, Pronoun emaw hnungah chauh a awm ṭhin avangin, Preposition ni lovin Postposition a ni.
Entirna: Chungah, hmaah, kiangah.

Conjunction (Thu zawmna)
Noun leh Noun te, thu leh thu te zawmtu atana kan hman ṭawngkam a ni.
Entirna : Chuvangin, leh, mahse, tichuan, tin.

Interjection (Thu thinṭhawng)
Rilru khawih thil uar taka sawina ṭawngkam chu Interjection a ni.
Entirna : Chhai raw! Karei! Khai aw! Ui!

Affix (Thu Bet)

Thu pangngai, awmze dang nei tura a hma lam leh a hnung lama bet emaw, a inkara inzep emaw hi Affix a ni. Mizo ṭawngah chuan prefix leh suffix chauh a awm a, infix erawh a awm lo. Affix reng reng chu a va behna thu nen ziah zawm zel tur a ni.

Prefix (Thu hma bet)
A hma lama bet chi chu Prefix (Thu hma bet) a ni.
(Mizo ṭawnga prefix chu ‘in’ leh ‘ti’ te hi an ni ber a, ‘in’ leh ‘ti’ hi ‘inti’ tia hman a ni bawk. ‘Ti’ hi ‘tih’ tiin a ṭul hunah tihdanglam (modified) ṭhin a ni bawk. Chuvangin, Mizo ṭawnga prefix-a kan hman ṭhinte chu – in, ti, inti, tih, intih te hi an ni.)

Suffix (Thu hnung bet)
A hnung lama bet chi chu Suffix (Thu hnung bet) a ni.
(Mizo ṭawnga suffix-te chu – a, ah, awm, dan, ho, in, na, pui, sak, san, te, te, thlak, tir, tu, zawng leh zia te hi an ni.)

Mizo ṭawng prefix-te hi hriat thiam a awlsam a, suffix thenkhatte erawh hi chu tawng dangte anga a fiah lutuk loh avangin mi tam tak tan buai theihna a ni.

1. A

a. Ziah zawm hun
‘A’ hi suffix a nihin a hmaa thu nen ziah zawm tur a ni. Suffix a nih theih dan chu hmun leh thil leh thuah ‘a’ hi Sap tawnga ‘of/at/on/in/to/into/by/as’ tihnaa kan hman hian a ni.

Entirna: I ina ui hi tu ui nge?
Keimaha awm hi ka ning tawh mang e.
I kala i hmuh loh chuan lo kir leh vat rawh.

b. Ziah zawm loh hun
‘A’ hi tawng bung hrang (parts of speech) zinga mi a nih te, zawhna (interrogative particle) a nih te leh tawngkam tawpna (verbal particle) a nih te hian a hranga ziah zel tur a ni.

Entirna: A lo kal. (pronoun)
Mi a reng reng hmuhsit loh tur. (adjective)
A! Ka rawn ken theihnghilh. (interjection)
Engtin a? Eng a? (zawhna)
Mawia chu hma takah a mu a, hma takah a tho leh a. (tawngkam tawpna)

2. Ah

a. Ziah zawm hun
‘Ah’ hi suffix a nihin a hmaa thu nen ziah zawm tur a ni. Suffix a nih theih dan chu hmun leh thil leh thuah ‘a’ hi Sap tawnga ‘of/at/on/in/to/into’ aiawha kan hman hian a ni.

Entirna: Kawngah kan kal.
Tunlaiah ar pawh an insual duh tawh lo.
Nangmahah ka innghat.
Mami hi nupuiah nei ta che.

b. Ziah zawm loh hun
‘Ah’ hi tawng bung hrang a nihin a hranga ziah tur a ni.

Entirna: Chhang ah khat min pe. (noun)
Ka ipte ah hi ka pi min tahsak a ni. (verb)
Ah! Ka tihpalh. (interjection)

3. Awm

a. Ziah zawm hun
‘Awm’ hi suffix anga kan hman chuan ‘phu’ tihna emaw, ‘tlak’ tihna emaw anga hman a ni a, a hmaa thu nen ziah zawm zel tur a ni.

Entirna: Beiseiawm, chhuanawm, duhawm, hlauhawm.

b. Ziah zawm loh hun
Ṭawng bung hrang zinga mi a nihin a hranga ziah tur a ni.

Entirna: Khatih lai khan ka awm lo. Nau ka awm alawm. (verb)
Tel ve awm tak i ni. (adjective)
A awm awm rawn la rawh. (adverb)

4. Bo

a. Ziah zawm hun
‘Bo’ hi ‘tibo, tihbo’ tia hman a nihin a hmaa a prefix ‘ti, tih’ nen hian ziah zawm zel tur a ni.

b. Ziah zawm loh hun
Ṭawng bung hrang Verb a nihin a hranga ziah tur a ni.

Entirna: Bi bo, kal bo, leng bo, paih bo, sawisel bo.

5. Bu

‘Bu’ hi hming hranpa anga kan lo hman ṭhan tawh ‘darbu, hnutebu, laibu, lehkhabu, meibu, mutbu, puanbu, thembu, chanchinbu’ tih loh a dangah, a hmaa Noun nen ziah zawm loh a ṭha.

Entirna: Hla bu, khuai bu, sava bu.

6. Chhan

a. Ziah zawm hun
‘Chhan’ hi a hmaa Verb nen inkawpa Noun anga hman a nih chuan ziah zawm tur a ni.

Entirna: I nghenchhan kha a tlu palh ang e.
I ṭanchhan chu a va nghet ṭha ve le.

b. Ziah zawm loh hun
Ṭawng bung hrang Adverb a nihin a hranga ziah tur a ni.

Entirna: Min sawi chhan deuh a ni maw? (adverb)
I lo kal chhan min hrilh thei em? (adverb)

7. Chhia

a. Ziah zawm hun
‘Chhia’ hi Noun thumala bet a nih te leh Verb thumal nen inkawpa Verb tho a la nih te hian ziah zawm zel tur a ni.

Entirna: Hmeichhia, pachhia, pawnchhia, thlichhia. (noun)
Bawhchhia, hmingchhia, tenchhia, thinchhia. (verb)

b. Ziah zawm loh hun
‘Chhia’ hi Noun thumal nen inkawpa Adjective a nih emaw, Verb thumal nen inkawpa Adverb a nih emawin a hranga ziah zel tur a ni.

Entirna: Hmel chhia, chhang chhia, thikthu chhia. (adjective)
Bawh chhia, khawih chhia, vaw chhia. (adverb)

8. Chhuak

a. Ziah zawm hun
‘Chhuak’ hi hming bikte leh kan hman ṭhan tawh thumal ṭhenkhatte-ah a hmaa thu nen ziah zawm ṭhin a ni.

Entirna: Chhakchhuak, kamchhuak, kutchhuak, Lalhmuchhuaka, thuchhuak, tlangchhuak (upa).

b. Ziah zawm loh hun
Hming bikte leh kan ziah zawm ṭhan thawh thumal ṭhenkhat ni lote chu a hmaa thu nen a hranga ziah zel tur a ni.

Entirna: Chhan chhuak, hmu chhuak, hnawt chhuak, kal chhuak, mut chhuak, pe chhuak.

9. Dan

‘Dan’ hi ṭawng bung hrang a ni emaw, suffix a ni emaw a hranga ziah zel tur a ni. (Suffix ni si, a hmaa thu nen a hranga ziah hi special case a ni.)

Entirna: Mizo hnam dan i hre kim em? (noun)
Dan ang thlapa tih tur a ni. (noun)
Lo dan tum rawh. (verb)
I chet dan chu a mawi lo hle mai. (suffix)
Ka ngaih dan chuan i dik lo zawk. (suffix)

10. Dang

‘Dang’ hi ‘mi dang, thil dang, hun dang, hmun dang’ tih ang chi reng rengah a hma Noun nen a hranga ziah zel tur a ni.

Entirna: Hna dang, khaw dang, ngaihzawng dang, ni dang.

11. E/Ve

‘E/Ve’ hi Verb a ni emaw, Interjection a ni emaw, chhan hrangpa nei lova ṭawngkam tawpnaa hman (particle) a ni emaw a hranga ziah zel tur a ni.

Entirna: A ho e. (particle)
E! A va mak ve. (interjection)
Chhuat laiah in nau a e. (verb)

12. Ho

a. Ziah zawm hun
‘Ho’ hi pakhat aia tam sawina (plural) suffix a nihin a hmaa thu nen ziah zawm tur a ni.

Entirna: A kalhote, anniho, naupangho, sawituho, vawk vulhho.

b. Ziah zawm loh hun
Ṭawng bung hrang zinga mi a nihin a hranga ziah tur a ni.

Entirna: A ho lutuk. Thil ho tak a ni. (adjective)
Tleirawlte chu ho ngai an ni. (verb)
Thupui kan sawi ho. (adverb)

13. In

a. Ziah zawm hun
‘In’ hi affix (prefix & suffix) a nihin a va behna thu nen ziah zawm tur a ni.

Entirna: Inbia, indem, inhmu, inhau, insual, invua. (prefix)
Keiin kal rawh. (suffix)
Rulin a chu. (suffix)

b. Ziah zawm loh hun
Ṭawng bung hrang zinga mi a nihin a hranga ziah tur a ni.

Entirna: Hei hi kan in a ni. (noun)
Tui ka in. (verb)
In lo-ah sa a chhuak. (pronoun)

14. Inti

‘Inti’ hi prefix a ni a, a va behna thu nen ziah zawm tur a ni.

Entirna: Intibuai,intihausa, intihmel ṭha, intithei.

15. Intih

‘Intih’ hi a ṭul dana ‘inti’ tihdanglamna (modified) a ni. A va behna thu nen ziah zawm tur a ni.

Entirna: Intihbuai, intihhausak, intihhmel ṭhat, intihtheih.

16. Khawm

‘Khawm’ hi a hmaa thu nen inzawma thumala kan lo hman ṭhan tawh – lengkhawm/lenkhawm, ṭhukhawm/ṭhutkhawm, khaikhawm, insuihkhawm te tih loh, a dangah reng reng a hmaa thu nen a hranga ziah tur a ni.

Entirna: Awm khawm, dah khawm, kal khawm, zai khawm.

17. Lo

a. Ziah zawm hun
‘Lo’ hi thu dang nen inkawpa ṭawng bung hrang Noun a nihin a hmaa thu nen ziah zawm tur a ni.

Entirna: Bengtlalo, damlo, engilo, englo, engmahlo, kawṭhalo, khawilo, rualbanlo.

b. Ziah zawm loh hun
Amaha ṭawng bung hrang a nihin a hranga ziah tur a ni.

Entirna: In lo-ah zawng ka hmu. (noun)
Thei kan lo. (verb)
Inah ka awm lo. (adverb)
Chutiang mi chu a lo ni. (adverb)

18. Mah

a. Ziah zawm hun
‘Mah’ hi thu dang nen inkawpa ṭawng bung hrang Pronoun emaw, Conjunction emaw a nihin ziah zawm zel tur a ni.

Entirna: Amah, keimah, mahni. (pronoun)
Nimahse, mahse, nimahsela, amaherawhchu.

Sawifiahna : ‘Mahse, nimahse’ tih ang chi hi thu zawmna (conjunction) anga kan hman loh chuan a hranga ziah tur a ni.

b. Ziah zawm loh hun
Amah chauha ṭawng bung hrang a nihin a hranga ziah tur a ni.

Entirna: Eng mah rawn keng duh suh ang che. (adjective)
Tu mah ka hmu lo. (adjective)
Chu chu lo ni mah se, kan ti tho tho ang. (adverb)

19. Mi

a. Ziah zawm hun
‘Mi’ hi mihring sawina a nihin a hmaa thu leh hnua thu nen ziah zawm tur a ni a, hun leh hmun leh thil sawinaah pawhin a hmaa thu nen ziah zawm tur a ni.

Entirna: Mihrang, mipa, milem, keimi, tlangmi, rammi.
Chumi lai tak chuan Muana a lo thleng a. (hun)
Khami hmunah khan alawm Zuali nen kan intawn. (hmun)
Hemi hi hmang rawh. (thil)

b. Ziah zawm loh hun
‘Mi’ hi mihring sawina a niha – he, chu, kha, khi, khu, saw dawta hman a nihin a hrang ziah tur a ni.

Entirna: Chu mi, kha mi, khi mi, khu mi, saw mi.

Tin, ‘mi’ chu mihring sawina a niha a nihna emaw, a chenkalna emaw nen sawi kawp a nih chuan a hrang ziah tur a ni.

Entirna: Infiam mi, van mi, zai mi, ziak mi.

‘Mi’ chu mihring sawina a niha a nihna tilang tura amah sawifiahtu Adjective thumal nena hman kawp a nihin a sawifiahtu thumal nen a hranga ziah tur a ni.

Entirna: Mi â, mi fing, mi sual, mi tha, mi hausa, mi rethei.

20. Na

a. Ziah zawm hun
‘Na’ hi suffix a niha Verb thumal nen inkawpa Noun a nihin ziah zawm tur a ni.

Entirna: Hmuhna, awmna, hmangaihna, ṭhatna, sualna, buaina, duhna, sawmna.

Tin, thumal pakhat ang hrim hrima kan hman thumal ṭhenkhatte chu ziah zawm tur a ni.

Entirna: Nachang, nafam, nangiang, namai, nangial, namen, narawh, nazawng.

b. Ziah zawm loh hun
‘Na’ hi ṭawng bung hrang zinga mi a nihin a hranga ziah tur a ni.

Entirna: Chetsualnaah chuan na eng zat nge awm? (noun)
Ka pum a na. (verb)
Kan zirtirtuin na takin min vua. (adverb)
I thu ni na na na chu engvang nge i tih loh ang? (conjunction)

Tin, ‘na’ hi mal din chi anga kan hmanna ṭhenkhatah a hranga ziah tur a ni.

Entirna: I la hre ve na chek ang. (ngei)
Ka hrilh na chungin a pawisa lo a ni. (reng)
I lo tel ve dawn na nge? (lo em ni?)
Thiam pawh ka thiam na hek lo. (bawk)
Ei na meka rilṭam i ni mai e. (lai)
Han ti chhin ila, thiam pawh kan thiam na maw. (dawn)

21. Pui

a. Ziah zawm hun
‘Pui’ hi suffix atan hman a niha thu dang nen inkawpa ṭawng bung hrang dang an siamin a hmaa thu nen ziah zawm zel tur a ni.

Entirna: Anpui, Mizopui, kalpui, inkhawmpui, keipui, khawpui, indopui, beihpui, pianpui, sawipui, zinpui.

b. Ziah zawm loh hun
‘Pui’ hi amah chauha ṭawng bung hrang a nihin a hrang ziah tur a ni.

Entirna: Arte-te chu a pui hruaina lamah an kal. (noun)
Min pui thei ang em? In khua chu a pui hle mai. (verb)
Sangha lian pui ka man. (adverb)

22. Sak

a. Ziah zawm hun
‘Sak’ hi suffix anga hman a niha thu dang nen ṭawng bung hrang dang an siamin ziah zawm tur a ni.

Entirna: Chhuhsak, ensak, duhsak, kensak, vensak, zawnsak.

b. Ziah zawm loh hun
‘Sak’ hi amah chauha ṭawng bung hrang a nihin a hranga ziah tur a ni.

Entirna: Saruh sak tak ka khel. (adjective)
In kan sak hunah min pui ang che. (verb)
Min va ngam sak sak ve. (adverb)

23. San

a. Ziah zawm hun
‘San’ hi suffix a nihin a hmaa Verb nen ziah zawm tur a ni.

Entirna: Chhuahsan, kalsan, mutsan, pil bosan, rauhsan, tlansan.

b. Ziah zawm loh hun
‘San’ hi ṭawng bung hrang a nihin a hranga ziah tur a ni.

Entirna: Kan leihlawn san lam chu ft. 12 a ni. (adjective)
I san deuh a ṭul a ni. (verb)
A nui san san mai. (adverb)

24. Te

a. Ziah zawm hun
‘Te’ hi pakhat aia tam sawina plural suffix a nihin emaw, mihring leh thil dangah a tê chi sawina hming a nihin emaw a hmaa thu nen ziah zawm tur a ni.

Entirna: Ṭhiante, chhungte, ringtute, zirlaite, ṭhenawmte, artê, uitê, beltê, keitê, patê, tubohtê.

b. Ziah zawm loh hun
Thil hrang hrang daidanna leh zawmna atana kan hmanin emaw, thu tihkimna anga kan hmanin emaw a hranga ziah tur a ni.

Entirna: Thing te, ramsa te, pangpar te hi Pathian siam vek a ni.
Inhmuh khawm te hi a nuam a ni.

Tin, chhan hranpa nei lem lova uar deuhna (emphatic particle) atana kan hmanin a hranga ziah tur a ni.

Entirna: Thil tê tak tê hi a rawn keng a. (adjective)
Khu nu tê khu chhe lo ka ti. (adjective)
Rei lo tê min lo nghak rawh. (adverb)
Mah têa len reng hi zawng a khawharthlak a ni. (adverb)

25. Thlak

a. Ziah zawm hun
‘Thlak’ hi suffix a nihin a hmaa thu nen ziah zawm tur a ni.

Entirna: Atthlak, buaithlak, finthlak, hahthlak, khawngaihthlak, manganthlak, thinurthlak.

b. Ziah zawm loh hun
Ṭawng bung hrang zinga mi a nihin a hranga ziah tur a ni.

Entirna: Ka pheikhawt ka thlak.
A hmin hmin kha rawn thlak rawh.
I kut thlak a na hle mai.

26. Ti

a. Ziah zawm hun
‘Ti’ hi prefix a nihin a hnua thu nen ziah zawm tur a ni.

Entirna: Titla, tilawm, tilungngai, tizahawm, timawi, tithianghlim.

b. Ziah zawm loh hun
‘Ti’ hi ṭawng bung hrang zinga mi a nihin a hranga ziah tur a ni.

Entirna: Sa ti rep hi a tui. (noun)
Tleirawl laiin ti a mawi duh hle. (noun)
Ka sawi ang chuan ti mai rawh. (verb)
‘Ka hmangaih che,’ a ti a. (verb)

27. Tin

‘Tin’ hi ṭawng bung hrang zinga mi a ni ṭhin a, a hranga ziah zel tur a ni.

Entirna: Kut tin, hnam tin, ni tin, mi tin, tin.

28. Tir

a. Ziah zawm hun
‘Tir’ hi suffix a nihin a hmaa Verb nen ziah zawm tur a ni.

Entirna: Chhuahtir, kaltir, zirtir, awmtir, chawlhtir, hmanhmawhtir.

b. Ziah zawm loh hun
‘Tir’ hi ṭawng bung hrang zinga mi a nihin a hranga ziah tur a ni.

Entirna: A tir kha chuan pawi ka ti bik lo asin. (adverb)
Min tir kual vel a ni. (verb)
Tleirawl tir a nih laiin pasal a nei ta a ni. (adjective)

29. Tlak

‘Tlak’ hi hmanna chi hrang hrang a awm, a enga pawh a hmaa thu nen ziah zawm loh tur a ni.

Entirna: Ba tlak, tlak, rin tlak, belh tlak, chhiar tlak, ziah tlak.

30. Tu

a. Ziah zawm hun
‘Tu’ hi suffix a nihin a hmaa Verb nen ziah zawm tur a ni.

Entirna: Zirtirtu, hmutu, neitu, zawngtu, ringtu, puitu.

b. Ziah zawm loh hun
‘Tu’ hi ṭawng bung hrang zinga mi a nihin a hranga ziah tur a ni.

Entirna: Tu engzat nge neih? (noun)
Tu nge ka nih i hria em? (pronoun)
Balhla kan tu. (verb)

31. U

‘U’ hi ṭawng bung hrang zinga mi a nih te, kohna a nih te, pakhat aia tam sawina a nih tein a hranga ziah zel tur a ni.

Entirna: Ka u nen kan inbia. (noun)
Sihal a u ṭhin. (verb)
Ṭhiante u, in lo dam tlang em? (kohna)
Kal rawh u. Va mu rawh u. (plural)

32. Zawng

‘Zawng’ hi a bula thu nen ziah zawm loh zel a ṭha.

Entirna: Zawng (noun), zawng (verb),
zawng zawng (adjective & adverb).
Duh zawng, ngaihsan zawng, sei zawng, thuk zawng, san zawng, huat zawng.

(Suffix ni si, a bula thu nen ziah zawm loh hi special case a ni. Mi ṭhenkhat chuan an ziak zawm ṭhin a, amaherawhchu ziah zawm loh mai hi a awlsamin a remchang zawk a ni.)

33. Zia

a. Ziah zawm hun
‘Zia’ hi suffix a nihin a hmaa thu nen ziah zawm tur a ni.

Entirna: Duhzia, hmangaihzia, rinawmzia, thukzia, sanzia,
mumal lohzia, tamzia.

b. Ziah zawm loh hun
‘Zia’ chu ṭawng bung hrang zinga mi a nihin a hranga ziah tur a ni.

Entirna: Puia zia hi chu ze mak tak a ni. (noun)

34. Zui

‘Zui’ hi a bula thu nen a hranga ziah zel tur a ni.

Entirna: Bawh zui, hre zui, chhui zui, ngaihtuah zui, kawm zui.

Lehkhabu rawnte:
1. Mizo Tawng Ziah Dan (Mizo Language Committee Book No. 1) by Mizoram Board of School Education
2. Mizo Tawng Grammar by Rev. Z.T. Sangkhuma
3. A Grammar and Dictionary of the Lushai Language (Dulien Dialect) by James Herbert Lorrain, Fred W. Savidge
4. Basic English Grammar and Language (for Upper Primary & Lower Secondary Schools) by Milon Nandy

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